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Staff Profile: Gerry F. Killeen

Gerry F. KilleenGerry F. Killeen, PhD

Appointment: Reader

Areas of interest: Mosquito biology and malaria control

Dr Gerry Killeen began his career in science as a biochemist, pursuing a doctoral thesis describing the physiological influences of secondary metabolites in plant extracts used as supplements in animal feedstuffs. He graduated with a PhD from University College Galway in the Republic of Ireland in 1996 and moved to Tulane University in New Orleans, USA where he investigated phage-display selection techniques for the identification of antibodies which kill malaria vector mosquitoes. During his three years at Tulane, he also began developing mathematical models of malaria transmission and this line of research led him to the field. In 2000, he moved to the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, working as a visiting scientist at the Mbita Point Research and Training Centre of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology. Here he developed his interests in field-based ecology, epidemiology and operational aspects of malaria control. In 2002, he moved to the Swiss Tropical Institute in Basel, Switzerland and was seconded to the Ifakara Health Institute (IHI) in the United Republic of Tanzania. Dr Killeen has since promoted the development of entomology and environmental sciences at IHI, culminating in the establishment of the Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group as a new department in 2012. Dr Killeen joined Durham University as a Wellcome Trust International Research Career Development Fellow in 2005 and transferred this fellowship to LSTM in January 2009. He remains based at IHI, focusing on integrated malaria control strategies in urban African settings and supporting the Dar es Salaam Urban Malaria Control Programme and the National Malaria Control Programme of Tanzania. Dr Killeen has acted as a visiting lecturer at University of Limerick and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and remains a Honorary Senior Research Fellow at University College Cork in the Republic of Ireland and a Research Associate Professor at Tulane University in the USA.

Dr Killeen teaches a course entitled Modeling vector-borne pathogen transmission as part of the MSc in Biology and Control of Parasites & Disease Vectors at LSTM and the short course on Mosquito Ecology and control at the Amani Research Centre of the National Institute for Medical Research in Tanzania.

Fundamental aspects of the ecology of malaria parasites and their vectors, the development of new approaches to malaria surveillance and control, and the development of public health systems which deliver effective vector control services on a sustainable basis in the poorest settings in Africa.


Chadwick Sikaala (Zambian National Malaria Control Programme/LSTM) Comparative Evaluation of Alternative Mosquito Sampling Methods in Lowland South-East Zambia (PhD)

Busiku Haimanza (Zambian National Malaria Control Programme, Zambia/LSTM) Impact Assessment of Malaria Control Interventions in selected districts of Zambia (PhD)

Samson Kiware (IHI/Marquette University): Informatics and modelling systems for understanding malaria transmission and control (PhD)

Victoria Mwakalinga (IHI/University of the Watwiterstrand) Integrated geographical tools can enable targeted urban planning interventions to control malaria and lymphatic filariasis (PhD)


Current projects and grants

Can routinely collected data from health facilities be used to identify “hot spots” of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania? (Wellcome Trust MSc Fellowship; Supervisor and sponsor)

The small minority of residents who spend their nights outdoors can be targeted with specific prevention measures to prevent half of all malaria infections in urban Africa (Wellcome Trust MSc Fellowship; Supervisor and sponsor)

The contribution of sub-patent asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections to self-sustaining parasite populations in an area of reduced malaria endemicity (Wellcome Trust MSc Fellowship; Supervisor)

Integrated geographical tools can enable targeted urban planning interventions to control malaria and lymphatic filariasis (CARTA PhD Fellowship; Supervisor)

African Vector Control (European Union Large-Scale Collaborative Project for Specific International Cooperation Activity New tools; Task Leader and Institutional Lead Investigator)

Mshinda Fellowship Scheme (Agency and grant type: Collaborative Agreement, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Endowment Fund & Ifakara Health Institute Core Funding; Principal Investigator)

Malaria Transmission Consortium (Theme Leader) Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Research Consortium Grant

Recent Publications

Number of items: 46.

Maliti, Deodatus, Ranson, Hilary, Magesa, Stephen, Kisinza, William, Mcha, Juma, Haji, Khamis, Killeen, Gerry and Weetman, David (2014) 'Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance'. PLoS ONE, Vol 9, Issue 10, e110910.

Killeen, Gerry, Kiware, Samson S, Seyoum, Aklilu, Gimnig, John E, Corliss, George F, Stevenson, Jennifer, Drakeley, Christopher J and Chitnis, Nakul (2014) 'Comparative assessment of diverse strategies for malaria vector population control based on measured rates at which mosquitoes utilize targeted resource subsets'. Malaria Journal, Vol 13, e338.

Killeen, Gerry (2014) 'Characterizing, controlling and eliminating residual malaria transmission'. Malaria Journal, Vol 13, e330.

Bayoh, M, Walker, Edward D, Kosgei, Jackline, Ombok, Maurice, Olang, George B, Githeko, Andrew K, Killeen, Gerry, Otieno, Peter, Desai, Meghna, Lobo, Neil F, Vulule, John M, Hamel, Mary J, Kariuki, Simon and Gimnig, John E (2014) 'Persistently high estimates of late night, indoor exposure to malaria vectors despite high coverage of insecticide treated nets'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 7, e380.

Moiroux, Nicolas, Damien, Georgia B., Egrot, Marc, Djenontin, Armel, Chandre, Fabrice, Corbel, Vincent, Killeen, Gerry and Pennetier, Cédric (2014) 'Human Exposure to Early Morning Anopheles funestus Biting Behavior and Personal Protection Provided by Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets'. PLoS ONE, Vol 9, Issue 8, e104967.


Selected Publications

Killeen, G.F., Okumu, F.O., N’Guessan, R., Coosemans, M., Adeogun, A., Awolola, S., Etang, J., Dabiré, K. R. and V. Corbel. 2011. The importance of considering community-level effects when selecting insecticidal malaria vector products. Parasites & Vectors. 4: 160.

Killeen, G.F., Chitnis, N., Moore, S.J. and F.O Okumu. 2011. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill? Malaria Journal. 10: 207.

Russell, T.L., Govella, N.J., Azizi, S., Drakeley, C.J., Kachur, S.P. and G.F. Killeen. 2011. Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania. Malaria Journal. 10: 80

Govella, N.J., Chaki, P.P., Mpangile, J.M. & G.F. Killeen. 2011. Monitoring mosquitoes in urban Dar es Salaam: Evaluation of resting boxes, window exit traps, CDC light traps, Ifakara tent traps and human landing catches. Parasites & Vectors. 4: 40

Dongus, S., Mwakalinga, V., Kannady, K., Tanner, M. and G.F. Killeen. 2011. Participatory mapping as a component of operational malaria vector control in Tanzania. In: Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health. 4: 321-336.

Govella, N.J., Moore, J.D. and G.F. Killeen. 2010. An exposure free tool for monitoring adult malaria mosquito populations. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 83: 596-600.

Ferguson, H.M., Dornhaus, A., Beeche, A., Borgemeister, C., Gottlieb, M., Mulla, M.S., Gimnig, J.E., Fish, D. and G.F. Killeen. 2010. Ecology: a pre-requisite for malaria elimination and eradication. PLoS Medicine 7: e1000303

Okumu, F.O., Govella, N.J., Moore, S.J., Chitnis, N. and G.F. Killeen. 2010. Potential, limitations and target product profiles of odor-baited mosquito traps for malaria control in Africa. PLoS One 5: e11573.

Russell, T.L., Lwetoijera, D.W., Maliti, D., Chipwaza, B., Alexander, M., Nathan, R., Knols, B.G.J., Takken, W. & G.F. Killeen. 2010. Impact of promoting long-lasting insecticide treatments of bednets upon malaria transmission in a rural Tanzanian setting with pre-existing high coverage with untreated nets. Malaria Journal. 9: 187.

Devine, G.J. and G.F. Killeen. 2010. The potential of a new larviciding method for the control of malaria vectors. Malaria Journal 9: 142.

Govella, N.J., Okumu, F.O. and G.F. Killeen. 2010. Insecticide treated nets can reduce malaria transmission by mosquitoes which feed outdoors. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82: 415-419.

Chaki, P.P., Shoo, B., Govella, N.J. Hemed, A., Tanner, M., Lindsay, S.W., Fillinger, U. and G.F. Killeen. 2009. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control program in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malaria Journal 8: 311

Ogoma, S.B., Kannady, K., Sikulu, M., Chaki, P.P., Govella, N.J., Mukabana, W.R. and G.F. Killeen. 2009. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malaria Journal. 8: 221

Mayagaya, V.S., Michel, K., Benedict, M.Q., Killeen, G.F., Wirtz, R.W., Ferguson, H.M. and F.E. Dowell. 2009. Non-destructive determination of age and species of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 81: 622-630

Govella, N.J., Chaki, P.P., Geissbuhler, Y., Kannady, K, Okumu, F.O., Charlwood, J.D., Anderson, R. & G.F. Killeen. 2009. A new tent trap for sampling exophagic and endophagic members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Malaria Journal. 8: 157.

Devine, G.J., Perea, E.Z., Killeen, G.F., Stancil, J.D., Clark, S.J., & A.C. Morrison. 2009 Using adult mosquitoes to transfer insecticides to Aedes aegypti breeding sites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In Press

Geissbühler, Y., Kannady, K., Chaki, P., Emidi, B., Govella, N.J., Mayagaya, V., Kiama, M., Mtasiwa, D., Mshinda, H., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Fillinger, U., Castro, M.C. & G.F. Killeen. 2009 Microbial Larvicide Application by a Large-Scale, Community-Based Program Reduces Malaria Infection Prevalence in Urban Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. PLoS One 4: e5107.

Okumu, F.O., Kotas, M.E., Kihonda, J., Mathenge, E., Killeen, G.F. & S.J. Moore. 2008. Comparative evaluation of the Human Landing Catch, Centres for Disease Control Light trap and Mbita trap for sampling malaria vectors in south eastern Tanzania. Open Tropical Medicine Journal. 1: 51-55.

Ferguson, H.M., Ng’habi, K.R., Walder, T., Kadangula, D., Moore, S.J., Lyimo, I., Russell, T., Urassa, H., Mshinda, H., Killeen, G.F. & B.G.J. Knols. 2008. Establishment of a large semi-field system for experimental study of African malaria vector ecology and control in Tanzania. Malaria Journal 7: 158.

Ng’habi, K.R., Huho, B.J., Nkwengulila, G., Killeen, G.F., Knols, B.G.J. & H.M. Ferguson. 2008. Sexual selection in mosquito swarms. May the best man loose? Animal Behaviour. 76: 105-112.

Khatib, R., Killeen, G.F., Abdulla, S.M.K., Kahigwa, E., McElroy, P.D., Gerrets, R.M., Mshinda, H., Mwita, A. & S.P. Kachur. 2008. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bednet coverage in rural Tanzania. Malaria Journal. 7: 98.

Fillinger, U., Kannady, K., Kiama, G.M., William, G., Vanek, M.J., Dongus, S., Nyika, D., Geissbühler, Y., Chaki, P.P., Govella, N.J., Mathenge, E.M., Singer, B.H., Mshinda, H., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Mtasiwa, D., Castro, M.C. & Killeen, G.F. 2008. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Program in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malaria Journal. 7: 20

Killeen, G.F., Tami, A., Kihonda, J., Okumu, F.O., Kotas, M.E., Grundmann, H., Kasigudi, N., Ngonyani, H., Mayagaya, V., Nathan, R., Abdulla, S., Charlwood, J.D., Smith, T.A. & C. Lengeler. 2007. Cost-sharing strategies combining targeted public subsidies with private-sector delivery achieve high bednet coverage and reduced malaria transmission in Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania. BMC Infectious Diseases. 7: 121.

Geissbühler, Y., Chaki, P., Emidi, B., Govella, N.J., Shirima, R., Mayagaya, V., Mtasiwa, D., Mshinda, H., Fillinger, U., Lindsay, S.W., Kannady, K., Castro, M.C., Tanner, M. and G.F. Killeen. 2007. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malaria Journal. 6: 126.

Dongus, S., Nyika, D., Kannady, K., Mtasiwa, D., Mshinda, H., Drescher, A.W., Tanner, M. Castro, M.C., Fillinger, U. & G.F. Killeen. 2007. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Health Geographics. 6: 37.

Killeen, G.F., Smith, T.A., Ferguson, H.M., Mshinda, H., Abdulla, S., Lenegeler, C. & S.P. Kachur. 2007. Preventing childhood malaria in Africa by protecting adults from mosquitoes with insecticide-treated nets. PLoS Medicine. 4: e229.

Huho, B.J., Ng’habi, K. R., Killeen, G.F., Nkwengulila, G., Knols, B.G.J. & H.M. Ferguson. 2007. Nature beats nurture: A case study of the quality of male Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes reared in artificial and natural environments. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210: 2939-2947.

Killeen, G.F. & T.A. Smith. 2007. Exploring the contributions of bednets, cattle, repellents and insecticides to malaria control: A deterministic model of mosquito host-seeking behaviour and mortality. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 101: 867-880.

Killeen, G.F., Kihonda, J., Lyimo, E., Oketch, F.R., Kotas, M.E., Mathenge, E., Schellenberg, J.A., Lengeler, C., Smith, T.A. & C.J. Drakeley. 2006. Quantifying behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes: Evaluating the protective efficacy of insecticidal nets against malaria transmission in rural Tanzania. BMC Infectious Diseases 6:161

Ross, A., Killeen, G.F. and T.A. Smith. 2006. Relationships of host infectivity to mosquitoes and asexual parasite density in Plasmodium falciparum. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 75 (Supplement 2): 32-37

Killeen, G.F., Ross, A. and T.A. Smith. 2006. Infectiousness of malaria-endemic human populations to vector mosquitoes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 75 (Supplement 2): 38-45

Smith, T.A., Killeen, G.F., Maire, N., Ross, A., Molineaux, L., Tediosi, F., Hutton, G., Utzinger, J., Deitz, K. and M. Tanner. 2006. Mathematical modelling of the impact of malaria vaccines on the clinical epidemiology and natural history of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Overview. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 75 (Supplement 2): 1-10

Vanek, M.J., Shoo, B., Mtasiwa, D., Kiama, M., Lindsay, S.W., Fillinger, U., Kannady, K., Tanner, M. and G.F. Killeen. 2006 Community-based surveillance of malaria vector larval habitats: A baseline study in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Public Health 6:154

Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Kalongolela, M.S., Kannady, K., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Caldas de Castro, M. and U. Fillinger. 2006. Habitat targeting for controlling aquatic stages of malaria vectors in Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 74: 517-518

Mukabana, W.R., Kannady, K., Kiama, G.M., Ijumba, J.I., Mathenge, E.M., Kiche, I., Nkwengulila, G., Mboera, L.E.G., Mtasiwa, D., Yamagata, Y., van Schayk, I., Knols, B.G.J., Lindsay, S.W., Caldas de Castro, M., Mshinda, H., Tanner, M., Fillinger, U. and G.F. Killeen. 2006. Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa. Malaria Journal. 5: 9.

Scholte, E.J., Ng’habi, K., Kihonda, J., Takken, W., Paaijmans, K, Abdulla, S., Killeen, G.F. and B.G.J. Knols. 2005 An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes. Science 308: 1641-1642

Killeen, G.F., Seyoum, A. and B.G.J. Knols. 2004. Rationalizing historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of managing the availability of resources to mosquitoes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 71 (Supplement 2): 87-93

Mshinda, H., Killeen, G.F., Mathenge, E.M., Mukabana, W.R. Mboera, L.E.G. and B.G.J. Knols. 2004. Development of genetically modified mosquitoes in Africa. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 4: 264-265.

Killeen, G.F. 2003. Following in Soper’s footsteps: northeast Brazil 63 years after eradication of Anopheles gambiae. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 3: 663-666.

Killeen, G.F., Knols, B.G.J. and W. Gu. 2003. Taking malaria transmission out of the bottle: implications of mosquito dispersal for vector control interventions. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 3: 23-29.

Knols, B.G.J., Njiru, B.N.N, Mathenge, E.M., Mukabana, W.R., Beier, J.C. and G.F. Killeen. 2002. Malariasphere: A greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in Western Kenya. Malaria Journal. 1: 19

Utzinger, J., Tanner, M., Kammen, D.M., Killeen, G.F. and B.H. Singer. 2002. Integrated programme is key to malaria control. Nature. 419: 431

Killeen, G.F., Fillinger, U., Kiche, I., Gouagna, L.C. and B.G.J. Knols. 2002. Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: Lesson for malaria control in Africa? Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2: 618-626.